Pain management during immunization
Student Feedback to Tailor the CARD™ System for Improving the Immunization Experience at School
Involving stakeholders in informing the development of a Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to improve the vaccination experience at school
Pain, fear, and fainting management during school-based vaccinations is suboptimal. The objective was to examine stakeholder perceptions of barriers and facilitators to better practices. Method: Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted in Niagara Region, Ontario: two parent groups (n=7); one grade 7 to 8 student group (n=9); two nurse groups (n=12); and one school staff group (n=6). Participants shared perceptions about school vaccination clinics and the implementation of specific strategies and tools. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used as the framework for analysis.
Overview of a Knowledge Translation (KT) Project to improve the vaccination experience at school: The CARD™ System
Students experience fear, pain, and fainting during vaccinations at school. While evidence-based interventions exist, no Knowledge Translation (KT) interventions have been developed to mitigate these symptoms. A multidisciplinary team—the Pain Pain Go Away Team—was assembled to address this knowledge-to-care gap. This manuscript provides an overview of the methodology, knowledge products, and impact of an evidence-based KT program developed and implemented to improve the vaccination experience at school.
Piloting The CARD™ System for education of students about vaccination: Does it improve the vaccination experience at school?
Many students are fearful of vaccine injection-associated pain. In prior research, we created Knowledge Translation (KT) tools to address school vaccinations and associated pain, fear, and fainting. The objectives of this pilot implementation project were to determine the acceptability and impact of these KT tools on student knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of their vaccination experience.
Stakeholder feedback on The CARD™ System to improve the vaccination experience at school
School-based vaccination programs can be a source of distress for many students due to the pain from the needle injection and related fears. We created a multifaceted Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to address vaccination and pain, fear, and fainting called The CARD™ System. The objectives were to document acceptability of key tools included in the multifaceted KT intervention and their effectiveness in improving knowledge and attitudes about vaccination pain and fear.
The CARD™ System for improving the vaccination experience at school: Results of a small-scale implementation project on program delivery
Researchers conducted a small-scale implementation study that integrated The CARD™ System (C-Comfort, A-Ask, R-Relax, D-Distract)—a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention designed to improve the vaccination experience at school—within the school vaccination program.
The CARD™ System for improving the vaccination experience at school: Results of a small-scale implementation project on student symptoms
Many students are afraid of receiving vaccinations at school. We implemented a novel, multifaceted knowledge translation intervention incorporating evidence-based vaccination coping strategies—The CARD™ System (C-Comfort, A-Ask, R-Relax, D-Distract)—and evaluated impact on student attitudes, knowledge, coping strategies used, and symptoms during school-based vaccinations.
Effectiveness of a hospital-based postnatal parent education intervention about pain management during infant vaccination: a randomized controlled trial
Parents have reported that they want to learn how to reduce pain in infants during vaccinations. The objective was to compare different levels of intensity of postnatal education about pain mitigation on parental self-reported use of interventions at future infant vaccinations. Hospital-based postnatal education increased parental use of pain interventions at infant vaccinations and can be added to existing education.
Needles don't have to hurt
Offers tips and information to parents to help reduce children's pain and stress during immunizations.
Reducing pain during vaccine injections: clinical practice guideline
Pain from vaccine injections is common, and concerns about pain contribute to vaccine hesitancy across the lifespan. Non-compliance with vaccination compromises the individual and community benefits of immunization by contributing to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Individuals may also engage in broader noncompliant behaviours if they acquire a fear of needles as a result of negative vaccination experiences. There are many evidence-based treatments to mitigate pain at the time of vaccination; however, most are not routinely used. The current guideline expands on and updates the 2010 guideline with recommendations across the lifespan. This enhanced scope led to a revised team name of HELPinKids&Adults. The intended audience is all health care providers who administer vaccine injections.