Chapter in the Canadian Immunization Guide revised in August 2018.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to cause genital warts, cervical cancer, penile cancer, anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. In North America, the lifetime cumulative incidence of HPV infection is estimated at more than 70% for all HPV types combined. A safe and effective vaccine against nine HPV types is available. HPV vaccine should be administered routinely to all girls and boys between the ages of 9 and 13 years of age. All youth who have not received the vaccine in a routine program should receive the vaccine in a ‘catch-up’ program. Physicians caring for children and youth should advocate for funding and implementation of universal HPV vaccine programs.
It’s been decades since Canada was first declared polio-free. Within the tremendous victory this represents for vaccines and immunization there is, however, a hidden danger.
The immunization of immunocompromised children requires vaccination strategies that provide maximum protection with minimal harm. Responsibility for immunization is shared by their primary care providers and their specialists. Detailed guidelines are published in the current version of the Canadian Immunization Guide, and general principles are outlined in the CPS Practice Point document.
Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is an issue of increasing concern. This document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (e.g., hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection, and gowns for specific procedures; adequate cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of surfaces and equipment, including toys; and aseptic technique for invasive procedures), and additional precautions for specific infections. Personnel should be adequately immunized, and those infected should follow work-restriction policies.
Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing Influenza-associated Hospitalizations During Pregnancy: A Multi-country Retrospective Test Negative Design Study, 2010–2016
In this retrospective cohort of over 2 million pregnancies that researchers assembled from 2010 to 2016 across 5 regions in 4 countries, 84% of the pregnancies overlapped with an influenza season. Thus, the risk of influenza virus infection is relevant to most pregnant women.
Intranasal influenza vaccine: Why does Canada have different recommendations from the USA on its use?
Canada and the USA differ in their recommendations for the use of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) continues to recommend LAIV as one of the influenza vaccines available for use in children 2 to 17 years of age. The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices made an interim recommendation against the use of LAIV for the 2016-2017 influenza season in response to low LAIV effectiveness observed in the USA during the 2013-2014 to 2015-2016 seasons. The recommendation has been continued for the 2017-2018 season. In response, NACI undertook a review of available LAIV effectiveness data in children and adolescents from Canada, the USA and a number of European countries. This commentary by Canada’s Chief Public Health Officer summarizes the findings of that review and provides the rationale for Canada’s current continued recommendation for LAIV use.
Is varicella vaccination associated with pediatric arterial ischemic stroke? A population-based cohort study
No increased risk of arterial ischemic stroke was found after varicella (chickenpox) vaccination. Parents and clinicians should be reassured about the safety of the varicella vaccine.
L'administration du vaccin dcaT pendant la grossesse : Guide de poche à l'intention des vaccinateurs
Le Comité consultatif national de l’immunisation (CCNI) recommande la vaccination par le vaccin dcaT à toutes les femmes enceintes au cours de chaque grossesse, quels que soient les antécédents de vaccination ou l’intervalle
entre les grossesses.
Affiche : La vaccination contre la coqueluche pendant la grossesse est sûre, et aide à diminuer le risque de la maladie chez les nourrissons.