Vaccination coverage remains suboptimal in Canada and sporadic outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis continue to occur. This study was undertaken to identify sociodemographic determinants of total non-vaccination (having never received any vaccine), non-vaccination for measles (0 doses) and incomplete vaccination for pertussis (< 4 doses) among 2-year-old Canadian children. Data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) were used. Associations between sociodemographic factors and outcomes were measured by multiple logistic regressions and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated. A total of 5,477 children were included in the analyses of total non-vaccination, and 3,899 children were included in the analysis of non-vaccination for measles and incomplete vaccination for pertussis. Overall, 2.7% of children (95% CI 2.0–3.3) had received no vaccine at all. Lower parental education, i.e., the responding parent having a high school diploma, trade certificate or less (compared with university graduation) was associated with total non-vaccination (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.02–3.91). Non-vaccination for measles was more frequent among children of single parent families (aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01–2.61) and those of parents with lower education (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.26–2.76). The odds of incomplete vaccination for pertussis was greater among children born outside Canada (aOR 3.10, 95% CI 1.73–5.58), of parents with lower education (aOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.41–2.62), and those whose household income was between $40,000 and $59,999 (aOR 1.47; 95% CI 1.04–2.07) or lower than $40,000 (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.13–2.22). Significant regional variation was also found for all outcomes. In conclusion, despite universal access to free childhood vaccines in Canada, regional variation and socioeconomic inequalities in vaccine uptake were still observed. Further analyses are warranted to identify barriers contributing to these variations.
This study aims to summarize and describe the evolution of published economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada, thereby outlining the current state of this expanding and meaningful research.
Effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines in preventing pneumonia in adults, a systematic review and meta-analyses of observational studies
S. pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia. Two types of pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for use in adults: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23) and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). This study reviews the literature assessing pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness against community-acquired pneumonia in adults among the general population, the immunocompromised and subjects with underlying risk factors in real-world settings.
Examen de la documentation du CCNI concernant l'immunisation contre le VPH des populations immunodéprimées
Les populations immunodéprimées présentent un risque accru d'être infectées par le virus du papillome humain (VPH) et de développer des cancers liés à cette maladie. Toutefois, d'autres précisions sont requises concernant l'immunogénicité et les résultats liés à l'innocuité de l'immunisation contre le VPH dans les populations immunodéprimées. Afin de remédier à cette lacune, une question de recherche a été élaborée par le groupe de travail sur le VPH du Comité consultatif national de l'immunisation (CCNI) et utilisée pour orienter une analyse documentaire.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are now widely used for children around the world. Because of the high cost of the vaccine, donor organisations, such as GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance, have developed innovative financing schemes to encourage their introduction in low-income countries. Given these efforts, it is essential to quantify the effect of the vaccines on disease rates. This study fills a crucial gap in our understanding of the effects of PCVs in low-income settings.
Final efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety analyses of a nine-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in women aged 16–26 years: a randomised, double-blind trial
Primary analyses of a study in young women aged 16–26 years showed efficacy of the nine-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) vaccine against infections and disease related to HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, and non-inferior HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 antibody responses when compared with quadrivalent HPV (qHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. Researchers aimed to report efficacy of the 9vHPV vaccine for up to 6 years following first administration and antibody responses over 5 years.
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Les Fondations canadiennes des maladies infectieuses sont la Fondation canadienne des maladies infectieuses (FCMI) et la Fondation pour la recherche et le développement en maladies infectieuses (FRDMI).
Dedicated to increasing child immunization around the globe and aiding the efforts of poorer countries to provide children with basic access to life saving vaccines.