Assessment of sex-specific differences in adverse events following immunization reporting in Ontario, 2012–15
Sex differences in AEFI reporting within passive surveillance systems are not well-understood.
We assessed sex-specific trends in passive AEFI surveillance in Ontario, Canada over four years.
We observed overall predominance of female AEFI reports that varied by age, vaccine and reaction.
Our findings support that both biological and behavioural factors may explain these differences.
Further study is needed to characterize the relationship between sex, gender and AEFI reporting.
Vaccination coverage remains suboptimal in Canada and sporadic outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis continue to occur. This study was undertaken to identify sociodemographic determinants of total non-vaccination (having never received any vaccine), non-vaccination for measles (0 doses) and incomplete vaccination for pertussis (< 4 doses) among 2-year-old Canadian children. Data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) were used. Associations between sociodemographic factors and outcomes were measured by multiple logistic regressions and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated. A total of 5,477 children were included in the analyses of total non-vaccination, and 3,899 children were included in the analysis of non-vaccination for measles and incomplete vaccination for pertussis. Overall, 2.7% of children (95% CI 2.0–3.3) had received no vaccine at all. Lower parental education, i.e., the responding parent having a high school diploma, trade certificate or less (compared with university graduation) was associated with total non-vaccination (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.02–3.91). Non-vaccination for measles was more frequent among children of single parent families (aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01–2.61) and those of parents with lower education (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.26–2.76). The odds of incomplete vaccination for pertussis was greater among children born outside Canada (aOR 3.10, 95% CI 1.73–5.58), of parents with lower education (aOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.41–2.62), and those whose household income was between $40,000 and $59,999 (aOR 1.47; 95% CI 1.04–2.07) or lower than $40,000 (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.13–2.22). Significant regional variation was also found for all outcomes. In conclusion, despite universal access to free childhood vaccines in Canada, regional variation and socioeconomic inequalities in vaccine uptake were still observed. Further analyses are warranted to identify barriers contributing to these variations.
It is important to listen carefully to the concerns parents raise regarding vaccines and autism. It is our job as medical and public health professionals to explain the science in a new way. The CASE method combines emotional and scientific talking points to sway parents' emotional responses and help them face the issue more logically.
Most vaccines protect both the vaccinated individual and the community at large by building up herd immunity. Even though reaching disease-specific herd immunity thresholds is crucial for eliminating or eradicating certain diseases, explanation of this concept remains rare in vaccine advocacy. An awareness of this social benefit makes vaccination not only an individual but also a social decision. Although knowledge of herd immunity can induce prosocial vaccination in order to protect others, it can also invite free-riding, in which individuals profit from the protection provided by a well-vaccinated society without contributing to herd immunity themselves. This cross-cultural experiment assesses whether people will be more or less likely to be vaccinated when they know more about herd immunity. Results show that in cultures that focus on collective benefits, vaccination willingness is generally higher. Communicating the concept of herd immunity improved willingness to vaccinate, especially in cultures lacking this prosocial cultural background. Prosocial nudges can thus help to close these immunity gaps.
This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about vaccination, and identify which risk communication messages are most effective for influencing the behaviours of vaccine hesitant parents.
Presentation to the UN Commission on the Status of Women March 13, 2017
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has assembled a collection of photos of vaccine-preventable diseases to assist journalists reporting on stories on infectious diseases and immunization. Photos may be reprinted to accompany news stories with proper attribution of the source.
The Canadian Paediatric Society's biennial status report, "Are We Doing Enough?", evaluates public policies affecting children and youth in Canada. It charts how well provincial/territorial and federal governments use their legislative powers to promote specific health and safety issues affecting young people. The report helps governments and health care providers working with them to take steps to improve and advance their public agendas in four key areas, based on specific needs and best evidence. See specific section on Immunization.
Assessing vaccine safety within Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program, 2012-2013 to 2014-2015
Objective: To summarize adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) reported after receipt of influenza vaccines administered within the Universal Influenza Immunization Program in Ontario.
Conclusion: This assessment found a low rate of reported adverse events following influenza vaccines administered in Ontario. Most reported events were mild and resolved completely. The findings were consistent with the very good safety profile of influenza vaccines.
Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2016-2017: An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) - National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI)
This document, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2016-2017 updates NACI’s recommendations regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines.